Corbett National park
The park has sub-Himalayan belt geographical and ecological characteristics. An ecotourism destination it contains 488 different species of plants and a diverse variety of fauna. The increase in tourist activities, among other problems, continues to present a serious challenge to the park’s ecological balance.
Corbett has been a haunt for tourists and wildlife lovers for a long time. Tourism activity is only allowed in selected areas of Corbett Tiger Reserve so that people get an opportunity to see its splendid landscape and the diverse wildlife. In recent years the number of people coming here has increased dramatically. Presently, every season more than 70,000 visitors come to the park from India and other countries.
The Jim Corbett National Park is a heaven for the adventure seekers and wildlife adventure lovers alike. Corbett National Park is India’s first national park which comprises 520.8 km2. Area of hills, reverie belts, marshy depressions, grass lands and large lake. The elevation ranges from 1,300 feet (400 m) to 4,000 feet (1,200 m). Winter nights in Corbett national park are cold but the days are bright and sunny. It rains from July to September.
Dense moist deciduous forest mainly consists of sal, haldu, pipal, rohini and mango trees, and these trees cover almost 73 per cent of the park. The 10 per cent of the area consists of grasslands. It houses around 110 tree species, 50 species of mammals, 580 bird species and 25 reptile species. The endangered Bengal tiger of India resides here. The sanctuary was the first to come under Project Tiger initiative.
Efforts to save the forests of the region began in the 19th century under Major Ramsay, the British Officer who was in-charge of the area during those times. The first step in the protection of the area began in 1868 when the British forest department established control over the land and prohibited cultivation and the operation of cattle stations.[ In 1879 these forests were constituted into a Reserve Forest where restricted felling was permitted.
In the early 1900s several Britishers, including E. R. Stevens and E. A. Smythies, suggested the idea of setting up of a national park on this soil. The British administration considered the possibility of creating a game reserve there in 1907. It was only in the 1930s that the process for demarcation of such an area got underway, assisted by Jim Corbett, who knew the area well. A reserve area known as Hailey National Park covering 323.75 km2 (125.00 sq mi) was created in 1936 when Sir Malcolm Hailey was Governor of United Provinces, and Asia’s first national park came into existence Hunting was not allowed in the reserve, but only timber cutting for domestic purposes. Soon after the establishment of the reserve, rules prohibiting killing and capturing of mammals, reptiles and birds within its boundaries were passed.
The reserve was renamed in 1954–55 as Ramganga National Park and was again renamed in 1955–56 as Corbett National Park. The new name honours the well-known author and wildlife conservationist Jim Corbett, who played a key role in creating the reserve by using his influence to persuade the provincial government to establish it.
The park fared well during the 1930s under an elected administration.[1 But during the Second World War, it suffered from excessive poaching and timber cutting Over time the area in the reserve was increased—797.72 km2 (308.00 sq mi) were added in 1991 as a buffer for the Corbett Tiger Reserve. The 1991 additions included the entire Kalagarh forest division, assimilating the 301.18 km2 (116.29 sq mi) area of Sonanadi Wildlife Sanctuary as a part of the Kalagarh division.It was chosen in 1974 as the location for launching Project Tiger, an ambitious and well known wildlife conservation project. The reserve is administered from its headquarters in the district of Nainital
Corbett National Park is one of the thirteen protected areas covered by World Wildlife Fund under their Terai Arc Landscape Programmers The programmers aims to protect three of the five terrestrial flagship species, the tiger, the Asian elephant and the Great One-horned Rhinoceros, by restoring corridors of forest to link 13 protected areas of Nepal and India to enable wildlife migration.
It has numerous ravines, ridges, minor streams and small plateaus with varying aspects and degrees of slopes The park encompasses the Patli Dun valley formed by the Ramganga river It protects parts of the Upper Genetic Plains moist deciduous forests and Himalayan subtropical pine forests eco regions. It has a humid subtropical and highland climate.
The present area of the Reserve is 1,318.54 square kilometers (509.09 sq mi) including 520 square kilometers (200 sq mi) of core area and 797.72 square kilometers (308.00 sq mi) of buffer area. The core area forms the Jim Corbett National Park while the buffer contains reserve forests (496.54 square kilometres (191.72 sq mi)) as well as the Sonanadi Wildlife Sanctuary (301.18 square kilometres (116.29 sq mi)).
The reserve, located partly along a valley between the Lesser Himalaya in the north and the Shivaliks in the south, has a sub-Himalayan belt structure The upper tertiary rocks are exposed towards the base of the Shiwalik range and hard sandstone units form broad ridges] Characteristic longitudinal valleys, geographically termed Doons, or Duns can be seen formed along the narrow tectonic zones between lineaments.
The weather in the park is temperate compared to most other protected areas of India. The temperature may vary from 5 °C (41 °F) to 30 °C (86 °F) during the winter and some mornings are foggy.] Summer temperatures normally do not rise above 40 °C (104 °F) Rainfall ranges from light during the dry season to heavy during the monsoons.
A total of 488 different species of plants have been recorded in the park.[ Tree density inside the reserve is higher in the areas of Sal forests and lowest in the Anogeissus-Acacia catechu forests. Total tree basal cover is greater in Sal dominated areas of woody vegetation. Healthy regeneration in sapling and seedling layers is occurring in the Mallotus philippensis, Jamun and Diospyros tomentosa communities, but in the Sal forests the regeneration of sapling and seedling is poor.
Over 586 species of resident and migratory birds have been categorized, including the crested serpent eagle, blossom-headed parakeet and the red jungle fowl — ancestor of all domestic fowl. 33 species of reptiles, seven species of amphibians, seven species of fish and 36 species of dragon flies have also been recorded.
Bengal tigers, although plentiful, are not easily spotted due to the abundance of camouflage in the reserve. Thick jungle, the Ramganga river, and plentiful prey make this reserve an ideal habitat for tigers who are opportunistic feeders and prey upon a range of animals. The tigers in the park have been known to kill much larger animals such as buffalo and even elephant for food. The tigers prey upon the larger animals in rare cases of food shortage There have been incidents of tigers attacking domestic animals in times when there is a shortage of prey.
Leopards are found in hilly areas but may also venture into the low land jungles] Smaller felines in the park include the jungle cat, fishing cat and leopard cat. Other mammals include four kinds of deer (barking, sambar, hog and chital), Sloth and Himalayan Black bears, Indian Grey Mongoose, otters, yellow-throated martens, ghoral (goat-antelopes), Indian pangolins, and langur and rhesus monkeys Owls and Nightjars can be heard during the night.
In the summer, elephants can be seen in herds of several hundred The Indian python found in the reserve is a dangerous species, capable of killing a chital deer. Local crocodiles were saved from extinction by captive breeding programs that subsequently released crocodiles into the Ramganga River.
patil & Joshi (1997) consider summer (April–June) to be the best season for Indian tourists to visit the park while recommending the winter months (November–January) for foreign tourists. According to Riley & Riley (2005): “Best chances of seeing a tiger to come late in the dry season- April to mid June-and go out with mahouts and elephants for several days.”
As early as 1991, the Corbett National Park played host to 3237 tourist vehicles carrying 45,215 visitors during the main tourist seasons between 15 November and 15 June. This heavy influx of tourists has led to visible stress signs on the natural ecosystem. Excessive trampling of soil due to tourist pressure has led to reduction in plant species and has also resulted in reduced soil moisture. The tourists have increasingly used fuel wood for cooking. This is a cause of concern as this fuel wood is obtained from the nearby forests, resulting in greater pressure on the forest ecosystem of the park. Additionally, tourists have also caused problems by making noise, littering and causing disturbances in general.
In 2007, young naturalist and photographer – Kahini Ghosh Mehta – took up the challenge of promoting healthy tourism in Corbett National Park and made the first comprehensive travel guide on Corbett. The film titled – Wild Saga of Corbett – showcases how tourists can contribute in their own small way in conservation efforts. The film is loaded with all information needed by a tourist before planning a visit to the park along with tips from senior park officials, nature guides and naturalists. Tourists can get a DVD copy of this film from the Bombay Natural History Society (BNHS).
- Dhikuli is a well known destination in the ark and situated at the fringes of Patli Dun valley. There is a rest house, which was built hundreds of years ago. Kanda ridge forms the backdrop, and from Dhikala, one can enjoy the spectacular natural beauty of the valley.
- Jeep Safari is the most convenient way to travel within the national park; jeeps can be rented for park trips from Ramnagar.
- Treks: tourists are not allowed to walk inside the park, but only to go trekking around the park in the company of a guide. The winter season is cold, so tourists should make proper arrangements for their clothing, if they are traveling in the winter season.
- Kalagarh Dam is dam located in the south-west of the wildlife sanctuary. This is one of the best places for a bird watching tour. Lots of migratory waterfowl comes here in the winters.
- Corbett Falls is a 20 m (66 ft) water fall situated 25 km (16 mi) from Ramnagar, and 4 km (2.5 mi) from Kaladhungi, on the Kaladhungi–Ramnagar highway. The water falls is surrounded by dense forests and pin drop silence.
Corbett National Park is situated in Ramanagar in the district of Nainital, Uttarakhand.
Area: 521 kms.
Route: The town of Ramnagar is the headquarters of Corbett Tiger Reserve. There are overnight trains available from Delhi to Ramnagar. Also, there are trains from Varanasi via Lucknow to Ramnagar. Reaching Ramnagar, one can hire a taxi to reach the park and Dhikala.
Ramnagar is also well connected by road with Lucknow,Bareilly, Nainital, Ranikhet, Haridwar, Dehradun and New Delhi. One can also drive from Delhi (295 km) via Gajraula, Moradabad, Kashipurto reach Ramnagar. A direct train to Ramnagar runs from New Delhi. Alternatively, one can come up to Haldwani/Kashipur/Kathgodam and come to Ramnagar by road.
Best Time to Visit: Mid-November to Mid-June.
Tour Program :
|Day 01 :||Delhi – Corbett- Delhi :
|Morning proceed to Corbett national park national park which is famous for tiger this also first Tiger reserve of India|
|Day 02 :||Corbett||Early morning start to your tour from you jungle safari than back to Hotel and take your breakfast, latter visit to Corbett museum and other temple. Evening back to hotel.|
|Day 03 :||Corbett to Delhi (260 Kms.)||After morning breakfast drive to delhiNearby:-Nainital: (63Kms.)- Very famous hill station as well city of lake
Bhimtal: (83 Kms.)- Bhimtal is also a nice city to know Himalayan lake city
Pangot: (96 Kms.) With nice bird watching stop for bird lover and nature lover.
Mukteshwar :- (98 Kms.)-Very nice Himalayan view as well as very nice spot for rock climber.
Ranikhet : (91 Kms.) – Ranikhet is famous for Himalayan peak series and other nature as well as Nature lover.
Almora : (141 Kms.) It is stabiles by British because loved by destination by them as well as famous for Sun temple and their old ancient and antique item.
Binsar :171 Kms.) Binsar is famous for Binsar seture and their nature atmosphere.
Jageshwar : 148 temples of groupas well knows as jyotirling of 12 jyotrit ling.
Kuasni : It is very nice destination because appreciated by Mahatama Gandhi Ji and Swami Viveka Nanda, as well as tea states and Beajnath temple of series.